Vitamin B5/pantothenic acid
Vitamin B5 or pantothenic acid is a water soluble vitamin the bioactive form of which is D(+), which is used to synthesise coenzyme A. Vitamin B5 is a thermolabile vitamin.
Which foods contain the vitamin?
- Whole grain bread
Biological functions of the vitamin
In the organism, pantothenic acid is synthesised into coenzyme A which is an essential enzyme for the metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids, lipides and nucleic acids.
Vitamin B5 also participates in the detoxification of medications.
Absorption, storage and excretion
Pantothenic acid is absorbed from the small intestine and the absorption is promoted by biotin, folic acid and calcium. The reserves in the organism last for 2–4 weeks. Excessive coffee and alcohol inhibit the absorption.
Although pantothenic acid is widespread in both vegetarian as well as food of animal origin, food processing reduces vitamin content for about 30–50%.
Problems resulting from deficiency
- Hair depigmentation
- Burning sensation in feet
- Symptoms specific to pellagra
- Possible disorders of the functions of inner secretory glands
It must be kept in mind that pantothenic acid deficiency is very difficult to determine because the symptoms of thiamine, riboflavin, folic acid and vitamin B6 deficiency disguise the symptoms of pantothenic acid deficiency.
Risk groups for developing the deficiency
- Continuous consumers of excessive alcohol
- Persons continuously on extreme diet
- Excessive coffee drinkers
Toxicity has not been determined even in case of large doses and it is believed that there is no risk of overconsumption.
Use of vitamin preparations
Additional intake is necessary in case of continuous excessive alcohol or coffee consumption and in the consumption of medications the detoxification of which needs acetylation (e.g., sulfonamides).
As an additional treatment component, pantothenic acid may also be used for treating alcoholism, depression, growth retardation, gastritis, psoriasis, acne, muscular dystrophy, asthma, tuberculosis, arthritis, headache, adrenal gland hypofunction, cataract, hypoglycemia, multiple sclerosis and anaemia.
Vitamin B5: pantothenic acid
Vitamin B5 content in food
Quantities of food products which should be consumed daily to obtain the recommended daily amount of vitamin B5.
|Liver||46 g||77 g||92 g||108 g||108 g||108 g||138 g|
|Milk, 3,5%||882 g||1471 g||1765 g||2059 g||2059 g||2059 g||2647 g|
|Egg||188 g||313 g||375 g||438 g||438 g||438 g||563 g|
|Whole grain bread||500 g||833 g||1000 g||1167 g||1167 g||1167 g||1500 g|
|Peas||400 g||667 g||800 g||933 g||933 g||933 g||1200 g|
|Tomato||1200 g||2000 g||2400 g||2800 g||2800 g||2800 g||3600 g|
|Liver||92 g||108 g||108 g|
|Milk, 3,5%||1765 g||2059 g||2059 g|
|Egg||375 g||438 g||438 g|
|Whole grain bread||1000 g||1167 g||1167 g|
|Peas||800 g||933 g||933 g|
|Tomato||2400 g||2800 g||2800 g|